The sequence of operation is one of the most important design aspects of any HVAC system. Without a proper sequence, the system is left to operate wildly—or not at all. When approached methodically, the process can be broken into smaller segments. We’ll look at the steps required to create a successful sequence of operation using a single-zone variable air volume (VAV) air handling unit serving a convention space. These same steps can be applied to any piece of equipment.
Many would say building automation technology has paved the way for numerous changes in the way structures are monitored and maintained during their lifecycles. Among those changes is the way a building’s energy use is tracked, and subsequently adjusted to make it more green and cost-efficient. As time goes on, such practices may become more common.
Desk-based technologies and other electronics that plug into office building receptacles draw a considerable amount of power, some of it 24/7. In fact, “plug loads” account for roughly 25% of total electricity consumed within office buildings. GSA currently owns and leases more than 370 million square feet of building space in some 9,600 buildings nationwide. The size of this real estate portfolio alone suggests the possibility of enormous energy savings, if plug loads can be reduced.
Lighting in the office of the future will be focused on a layered design, which optimizes ambient, perimeter and task lighting to hit energy goals and save the most money with the best lifecycle cost, potentially earning LEED points too.
This study evaluates the electricity savings that can be gained by installing ductless heat pumps (DHPs) in multifamily and small commercial applications. A total of 12 multifamily units were submetered in two localities; 188 units were included in the accompanying utility billing analysis.